An Inside Perspective from CAP’s President & CEO

Arts Education for Juvenile Offenders

November 6, 2017
Kimberly L. Hyatt, President & CEO

Actions have consequences. This truth underlay the “tough on crime” stance I long held toward youth involved in the criminal justice system. But once I saw the difference arts education could make in their lives through our programming at the Cathedral Arts Project, I realized there’s more to the story.

At CAP our vision is for every child to have access to an arts-rich education. “Every child” includes those accused, rightly or wrongly, of criminal activity.

CAP’s programs provide these young people a non-threatening outlet for self-awareness, reflection and expression. Whether they are learning about art history, color theory and technique in visual arts, or body, energy and time in dance, they are learning so much more. We emphasize communication and social skills, nonviolent self-expression and new avenues for coping in difficult environments. They develop new ways of thinking about life from perspectives behind, within and beyond the time and space they currently inhabit. They imagine possibilities of a second chance.

Yes, actions have consequences. Not only their actions, but also ours collectively. Most youth who become part of the justice system experience trauma before, during and after, which often compounds mental illness. Estimates of the prevalence of mental illness among justice-involved youth are as high as 70 percent overall and 80 percent for girls.[i] Our justice system is simply not equipped to provide these children the treatment they need. In fact, whether the justice system is even set up for successful rehabilitation is debatable.

An investigation by the Miami Herald reported that Florida’s juvenile justice system adds new trauma to troubled youth. “With a one-year recidivism rate of 45 percent, it is a justice system that is supposed to reform juvenile delinquents, but too often turns them into hardened felons.”[ii] In the Fourth Circuit, State Attorney Melissa Nelson wants to write a different story so that more youth can be successfully reintegrated into society and transition to adulthood. Nelson created a Juvenile Justice Advisory Committee to develop programming that will reduce recidivism rates and crime.

What we and many others have found is that the arts reach these kids when nothing else has. Corrections Officer Eric Wesley with the Jacksonville Sherriff’s Office witnessed the difference our arts program made at the John E. Goode Pre-Trial Detention Facility. “Coming to this class gives them [the students] the opportunity, literally, just to be themselves. ‘I don’t have to be tough in this class, I just need to be me. I don’t have to walk around and act like nothing bothers me. I’m able to now express myself through art.’ And I think that’s the most important thing – them being able to realize, ‘Hey, it’s okay for you to be who you are.’”

That’s because they, like all of us, are creators at our core. Every child is born with the capacity to make positive contributions to society. Sometimes, it takes the arts to ignite that spark. The arts hold the power to transform – to transform feeling, to transform thinking, to transform doing. Through arts education, these children move to a place where they can experience that transformation and learn at an entirely different level.

Yet even as they learn, it is equally true we have much to learn as well.

The most important lesson is that we can’t write off youth involved in the justice system. Actions have consequences, including our own individual actions. And we are just as responsible for our actions as anyone else is for theirs. For those of us who believe the creative process underlies our very existence, we must remember that we are called to help one another discover and steward that creative capacity and that none of us are ever finished products. Reams of research during the last 30 years especially demonstrate that young brains simply have not had time to develop the same cognitive, psychological, social or neurological capacities that adults typically possess.

In Graham v. Florida (2010), the U.S. Supreme Court wrote, “Juveniles are more capable of change than adults, and their actions are less likely to be evidence of ‘irretrievably depraved character’ than are the actions of adults…from a moral standpoint it would be misguided to equate the failings of a minor with those of an adult, for a greater possibility exists that a minor’s character deficiencies will be reformed.”

In life and in art, actions have consequences. But while we usually arrive at a finished product in the arts, that is never the case when it comes to life, especially the life of a young person. There is always another chapter to be written. There is always another move to make. The question is, which direction will you take?

*For more information, visit

Images: County Missives, Joe Karably

[i] Shufelt, J. L. & Cocozza, J. L. (2006). Youth with mental health disorders in the juvenile justice system: Results from a multi-state prevalence study. National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice.

[ii] Fight Club: A Miami Herald Investigation into Florida’s Juvenile Justice System.


Arts Education: A Lesson in Respect

October 2, 2017
Kimberly L. Hyatt, President & CEO

The average life span of great civilizations is 215 years.[i] A first-rate arts education is one of the best means left to save our American experiment, now 241 years old. I’ve come to this conclusion over 15 years working with the Cathedral Arts Project, an organization whose mission is to enrich our quality of life through unleashing the creative spirit of young people.

When I first took this role, I didn’t give much weight to how the arts bolster our ability to see the world from other perspectives. Back then, the ways arts education improved academic achievement was top of mind. I assumed the increasing diversity of our society would automatically generate broader understanding and mutual respect. I was wrong.

Today, my perspective has changed. I have witnessed firsthand the transformative power of the arts for students, families and our community. Students who participate regularly in the arts show marked improvement in class participation, task completion, peer communication, and conflict management – but they also gain the insights, empathy and language needed to understand each other and, just as important, to understand themselves. As we celebrate National Arts & Humanities Month, it is my hope that the unique potential of arts education will help us achieve our country’s promise of E pluribus unum – out of many, one.

Seventy eight percent of Americans believe disrespect and political dysfunction prevent our nation from moving forward.[ii] A meta-analysis of 72 studies of 14,000 American college students between 1979 and 2009 revealed a drop of 40% in empathy scores.[iii] Since most of the drop occurred after 2000, the decline is undoubtedly steeper today.

It’s hard not to see a possible correlation between these findings and decreased access to arts education over the past several decades. Arts education has the potential, like nothing else, to mold both brains and hearts and open us to meaningful encounters where we look to not only our own interests, but also the interests of others.

Students in CAP’s ARTS Ignite! afterschool program begin each class by reciting a creed that involves five promises, the first of which is to “respect others and their ideas as I respect myself.” For our democracy to flourish, we must revive our ability to reason together and not merely tolerate, but respect one another – no matter what. As John Dewey put it, “Imagination is the chief instrument of the good.” How we treat another person and their ideas, he noted, is dependent upon our power to put ourselves “imaginatively” in another’s place.[iv]

In contrast, what lesson are we teaching our children when they see us unfriend someone on Facebook simply because we disagree with a post? That their perspective has no value? That they do not deserve our friendship, much less our respect?

While we can homogenize the opinions that show up on our social media feeds, living together peaceably and productively in the real world is only going to get more challenging. If Census Bureau estimates hold, in just 27 years, one-time minority groups will comprise the majority of Americans.

Arts education demands that we study what life looks like, sounds like, and feels like for others. It provides a structure to come together while holding different perspectives. In theatre, we walk in another person’s shoes. In visual arts, we study familiar images from unfamiliar perspectives. We learn to pause and look deeper rather than defaulting to lazy, habitual ways of seeing.

There is always another perspective, another interpretation, another form. Students learn not only through their own cognition and creative process, but also through their peers.

Arts education promotes ways of thinking that support curiosity and openness. As we grow older and become set in our ways, this shift can often feel like too much. But if we encourage children to think this way – before rigid, binary ways of seeing the world in black and white take hold – it’s a mindset that will stay with them the rest of their lives.

Furthermore, through arts education, we learn the important life skill of critique. Can you imagine what it would be like if a critical mass of us knew how to give and receive respectful, constructive feedback? It would surely be a significant step forward in our life together where basic human decency is often hard to spot.

While a healthy democracy requires strong convictions and healthy debate, it requires much more. Arts education is the key. Aristotle said we need art because we have not lived enough. The arts can reposition us in others’ worlds, or even our own, long enough to glimpse something we hadn’t noticed before. And that just might be our salvation – as individuals and as a civilization.

[i] Samuel Arbesman, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation.

[ii] National Institute for Civil Discourse, The University of Arizona, 2017.

[iii] Changes in Dispositional Empathy in American College Students Over Time: A Meta-Analysis,” Sara Konrath, University of Michigan, 2010.

[iv] John Dewey, Art as Experience, p. 362

Arts Integration: An Education Reform Strategy Business Should Back


September 5, 2017
Kimberly L. Hyatt, President & CEO

As 129,000 Duval County Public Schools students embark upon a new school year, laments about the poor quality of public education ring out as familiar as ever. Despite business interests and others funding countless reform efforts since the 1983 publication of “A Nation at Risk,”[i] the gap between educational outcomes of children from lower- and higher-income families, by many measures, has widened across the country.

A glimmer of hope appears in recent research out of Northwestern University that examines the larger school districts in Florida. The results present reason to trust that demographics are not destiny. Why? Because individual schools within Florida’s districts vary dramatically at closing the achievement gap.[ii] It’s not easy, but it’s possible.

One way to help students from all socioeconomic backgrounds learn is to treat them like the creative thinkers they are. In the midst of political polarization around education reform, there should be easy consensus that integrating the arts when learning other subjects works wonders and is cost-effective.

In arts integration, students connect an art form with another subject area and learn both. It’s not simply playing background music or doing a craft project. It’s about treating music, dance, theatre, media arts and visual arts as inherently valuable and then integrating these disciplines when learning science, math and other subjects.

Illustration courtesy of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts

Maya Angelou is often quoted for saying, “Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.” Well, we know better – yet we continue to teach children as if we don’t understand how they learn. Whatever the reason for this, it’s surely not because arts integration is too expensive or too experimental.

Turnaround Arts is a federal initiative to integrate arts learning into some of the nation’s lowest performing schools. In its first three years, Turnaround Arts demonstrated a 13 percent improvement in reading scores and a whopping 23 percent improvement in math scores.[iii]

Closer to home, the Cathedral Arts Project offers a theatre and civics integration program for middle schoolers. In end-of-course exams, 100 percent of students in the integration program were proficient, compared to only 46 percent and 78 percent in the control groups for 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, respectively. This is the remarkable difference arts integration can make – whether it’s in civics, math, science or language arts.

With arts integration, learning is not about students passively receiving information. It’s about what happens in their minds as they interact with information and with one another to solve problems. It’s about connecting the dots, applying knowledge from one subject to another and discovering innovative solutions. You know, the kind of work they’ll be called upon to do the rest of their lives.

Employers routinely report difficulty finding job candidates skilled at problem solving and innovative thinking. To the extent workforce development is one of the goals of education, wouldn’t it make sense to help students develop these skills? We can’t expect individuals to magically know how to analyze a problem from different perspectives just because they start to draw a paycheck. These habits of mind must be taught from the earliest years and throughout their education.

Regurgitating information no longer predicts success. In a world of infinite data anyone can retrieve from a phone, memorizing is not the way to demonstrate intelligence. What we need is what we have always needed – individuals who use their minds to think analytically as they tenaciously engage with a problem. To persevere in problem solving, one must be self-motivated and engaged, and there is nothing that engages our brains like the arts.[iv]

That’s one reason arts integration is a perfect way to address the achievement gap. The arts help children – all children – love school. Low-income students who are highly engaged in the arts are twice as likely to actually graduate from college as their peers with little or no arts education.[v]

Granted, integration must be done right. The greatest academic improvement occurs when students are engaged in integrated learning over successive years. Teachers need effective training, autonomy and support from principals. Arts teachers need principals who demonstrate by word and deed that the arts will not take a back seat at their school. And it must be research based.

Any Given Child Jacksonville and the Cultural Council of Greater Jacksonville are working with DCPS to implement arts integration in four schools. Through the support of PNC Bank and David Engdahl, the Lift Every Student program is embedding a local artist in each of these schools: Lucy Chen at John Love Early Learning Center, Valarie Esguerra at Hyde Park Elementary School, Sarah Crooks at Hyde Grove Early Learning Center, and Erin Kendrick at Smart Pope Livingston Elementary School. These artists in residence will work with classroom teachers to integrate the arts into other subjects so that students will get to experience and work with information rather than passively receive it. And when kids experience knowledge, it takes hold in their minds – minds that were created with the capacity to astound.

When all is said and done, there are only a few things we need to get right in life – educating children is one of those things.

Arts integration is a proven and cost-effective strategy on which people on both sides of the aisle should agree. It’s an area ripe for public-private partnerships. We’ve tried one reform effort after another and still have a crisis in education. It’s time we turn to the arts.

[i] United States. National Commission on Excellence in Education. Department of Education. A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform: A Report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education. Washington, D.C.: The Commission: [Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. distributor], 1983.

[ii] Some schools much better than others at closing achievement gaps between their advantaged and disadvantaged students. David Figlio and Krzysztof Karbownik. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 2, #19 July 20, 2017. Center on Children and Families. Brookings Institution.

[iii] Turnaround Arts Initiative: Summary of Key Findings

[iv]An Impact Evaluation of Arts-Integrated Instruction Through the Changing Education Through the Arts (CETA) Program, The Kennedy Center, 2014.

[v] Americans for the Arts, 2015.